Climate Change

Elevated ocean levels, elevated ocean temperatures, more frequent and intensive flooding, more frequent and intensive droughts, and distorted snowmelt patterns are different effects of climate change.

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Feedback Loops

Energy consumption causes climate change, which affects the hydrologic cycle, triggering investments in energy-intensive water solutions, exacerbating climate change, and so forth.

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Alternative Fuels

In the United States, national security, environmental, and economic concerns drive an interest in alternatives to petroleum that are domestic, low-carbon, and sustainable.

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Clean Water

Protecting drinking water quality from the output of water treatment plants for the sake of public health and discharge water quality from wastewater treatment plants for the sake of ecosystems requires nontrivial amounts of energy.

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Economic Growth vs The Environment

As societies become wealthier, concerns shift from economic growth to environmental protection. The environmental Kuznet’s curve (EKC) models this phenomenon.

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Transporting Water

Localized water constraints necessitate transporting water farther from its source to end use. Common proposals include long-haul pipelines and interbasin transfer, which moves water from one river basin to another.

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In the traditional hydrosphere, freshwater rivers flow from their headwaters into the ocean, releasing potential gravitational energy along the way. In seawater desalination, the process is reversed.

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Population Growth

The key underlying demographic trends that strain energy and water resources are population growth and economic growth. Other key trends are the impacts of global climate change and policy choices.

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Math of Population

There are several factors to keep in mind when thinking about population growth besides just the birth and death rates.

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Changing Water Levels

Overall, water availability is declining globally. Withdrawals from nonrenewable sources and shifts in water levels, stored water, and water use, affect the amount of water that is available to humanity and nature.

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