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The energy that is needed to raise water by overcoming potential energy is essentially the reverse of how hydroelectric dams extract the potential energy of falling water:

where **ρ** is the density of the water (1,000 kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m^{3})), ** V** is the volume of water raised,

For continuous flows, it is more useful to look at the power required for pumping, which is the energy required over time:

For this equation, the term * P* is the change in potential energy per unit time (or the pumping power needed),

Pumps must also overcome friction within pipelines. The water industry terms the losses from friction “head losses,” which is analogous to the additional “head” or elevation that must be overcome for pumping. These losses can be described for turbulent flow by the Darcy-Weisbach equation:

where ** h_{f}** is the head loss due to friction (in meters, m),

Image Credits: benjamas154/Shutterstock.com.

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